Melasma - Causes, prevention and treatment

Melasma is a condition seen mostly in women and is characterized by the appearance of the face or neck, of brown pigmentation in the form of patches or plaques . Lesions usually appear on the forehead, perioculararea, upper lip, cheek area and , rarely , in the neck .
Although the exact cause of melasma is unknown, was identified several contributing Factors:

 Predisposing genetic factors- the existence of people in the family, with similar problems.

Solar exposure- Among other adverse effects, UV light stimulates melanocytes , cells responsible for skin melanin production and they produce localized hyperpigmentation. Melasma is increasing in summer,during periods of sun exposure. Even under a correct treatment of the disease, lack of sun protectioncauses recurrent lesions.

Darker skin photo type - Although dark skin is considered resistant to UV light aggression with more melanocytes, more pigment and therefore a better sun tolerance, the person's tendency to excessive exposure to the sun, without providing an adequate photo protection, determines often the appearance of melasma.

Particular hormonal profile- Hormonal imbalances (ovarian, thyroid) or specific hormonal profile of pregnancy period can induce lesions in susceptible individuals. Also, the higher incidence of melasma in recent years, may be determined by frequent cases of increased levels of estrogen, associated with high stress levels, the existence of excess fat, consumption of drugs and alcohol affects liver function ( liver estrogen is the main organ of metabolism ) or assimilation of xenoestrogens , who come from various substances come into contact with the body and acts on the endocrine system as false messengers. Various types of photosensitizing drugs, antibiotics, oral contraceptives, or photosensitizing pigment cosmetics (perfumes, creams) can trigger or worsen pigmented lesions.


Melasma is achronic skin diseases, characterized by a very low tendency to spontaneous remission.  It is important that treatment be extended, consistently carried out under medical supervision. Depigmentation is done gently, or local irritation caused by medication, can lead to worse injuries.
Whitening products generally contain quinonederivatives ,azelaic acid , kojic acid , rucinol , licorice , soy, nicotinamide , vitamin C, retinol , alfahidroxiacizi , antioxidants . Choosing the right product for each patient or the optimal combination of substances is for the doctor. The treatment is conducted so that local irritation be controlled so as to prevent any risk of increase in pigmentation . Therapy with topical skin-lightening products may take weeks to several months before any significant difference is noted.

Cabinet treatment of melasma, includes advanced procedures that can be performed only by specialists and are based on modern technologies of medical aesthetics. The doctor cancombine various solutions, depending on the situation and needs of each patient:
Mechanical exfoliation, made with crystals ;
Mesotherapy whitening - non-invasive procedure,  to introduce into the deeper skin layers ,appropriate cocktail of active ingredients ;
Superficial peeling - with alfahidroxiacizi or TCA ( trichloroacetic acid ) ;
Technology IPL ( intense pulsed light ) - the filter for pigmentation disorders ;
Fraxel laser type - for cellular regeneration;
Intraceuticals therapy - based on the production and use of hyperbaric oxygen for infusion  of  hyaluronic acid , vitamins (A, C , E) and antioxidants, to erase the signs of aging and leaves skin bright , uniform , relaxed ;  the effects are immediate and visible .

Home treatment performed by your doctor, is designed to enhance the effects of treatment cabinet and keep them long . Usually home treatment include : • application of product lightening agent - work during the evening and night , has content retinol (provides cell renewal process which slows with age ), vitamin C, light exfoliation agents, whitening substances ; • easy exfoliating agent - creams or lotions containing alfahidroxiacizi ;•  sun protection - cream SPF 50 + with UVA and UVB filters , properly applied in sufficient quantity .
It is recommended that all these forms of treatment are complemented by a balancedlifestyle, in order to avoid stress (which affects the hormonal balance), and a healthydiet with fewer processed foods and regular consumption of fiber (intestinal health) and antioxidantfoods.